- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 27 May 2018
Open tendering of construction works
A 'tender' is a submission made by a prospective supplier in response to an invitation to tender. It makes an offer for the supply of goods or services. In construction, the main tender process is generally the selection, by the client, of a contractor to construct the works. However, procurement routes have become more complex, so tenders may now be sought for a wide range of goods and services.
Open tendering allows anyone to submit a tender to supply the goods or services that are required. Generally, an advert will be placed giving notice that the contract is being tendered, offering an equal opportunity to any organisation to submit a tender.
On larger projects, there may then be a pre-qualification process that produces a short-list of suitable suppliers from the respondents expressing interest in the contract. This short list will then be invited to prepare tenders. The selection of a short list can include pre-qualification questionnaires and interviews. This sort of pre-qualification process is not the same as selective tendering. Selective tendering only allows suppliers invited from a pre-selected list to take part in the tender process.
Open tendering has been criticised for being a slow and costly process, attracting tenders or expressions of interest from large numbers of suppliers, some of whom may be entirely unsuitable for the contract and as a result it can waste a great deal of time, effort and money. However, open tendering offers the greatest competition and has the advantage of allowing new or emerging suppliers to try to secure work and so can facilitate greater innovation. The number of firms tendering can be reduced (ideally to a maximum of 6) by a pre-qualification process, and if this uses a standard pre-qualification questionnaire, then the time wasted by unsuccessful applicants can be minimised.
Whilst often seen to be more efficient, selective tendering can exclude potential suppliers, it can be seen to introduce bias into the process, and it can result in prospective suppliers continually contacting clients and consultants to check that they are on the appropriate lists.
On public projects, or projects that include an element of public funding, it may be necessary to advertise contracts as a requirement of the Public Contracts Regulations. This is intended to open up public procurement within the European Union and to ensure the free movement of supplies, services and works (see OJEU for more information).
Open tendering can be either single stage or two stage. Two-stage tendering is used to allow early appointment of a supplier, prior to the completion of all the information required to enable them to offer a fixed price. In the first stage, a limited appointment is agreed, allowing them to begin work and ine a fixed price is negotiated for the contract.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Appointing consultants.
- Call-off contract.
- Due diligence when selecting contractors or subcontractors.
- Invitation to tender.
- Mid-tender Interviews.
- OJEU procurement rules.
- Pre-qualification questionnaire.
- Pre-tender Interviews.
- Procurement routes.
- Selective tender.
- Tender documentation.
- Tender evaluation.
- Tender processes for construction contracts
- Two stage tender.
Featured articles and news
MASTRO project – lifecycle costing and assessment.
Five things to consider before installing solar panels.
New conservation building for the Louvre completed.
A balance between character and climate.
Bamboo pavilion built at London South Bank Uni.
Bringing in an expert.
Why the lowest price isn't sustainable.
The Most Economically Advantageous Tender.
Pipe dream or possibility?