Last edited 19 Jul 2021


The Orange Book, Management of Risk - Principles and Concepts, Published by HM Government in 2020, sets out the main principles underlying effective risk management in all government departments and arm’s length public bodies with responsibility derived from central government for public funds.

It defines assurance as: ‘…a general term for the confidence that can be derived from objective information over the successful conduct of activities, the efficient and effective design and operation of internal control, compliance with internal and external requirements, and the production of insightful and credible information to support decision making. Confidence diminishes when there are uncertainties around the integrity of information or of underlying processes.’

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