Adapting 1965-1980 semi-detached dwellings in the UK to reduce summer overheating and the effect of the 2010 Building Regulations
Author: Steven Howse
The aim of the report was to produce recommendations for occupants to undertake, concerning passive changes to the building design and changing occupant activity to reduce overheating in 1965- 1980 semi-detached dwellings. To do so, interventions in these two topics were tested to reduce overheating on a post 2010 Building Regulations base case.
This base case and interventions simulations were developed using IES software. To measure the level of overheating, internally, a degree hours over the CIBSE overheating threshold (CIBSE, 2006) method was used.
The basic upgrades to the building implementing the 2010 Building Regulation were found to decrease the total degree hours. When changed to two elderly (vulnerable) occupants, the total degree hours decreased overall. Other interventions that were found to decrease the total degree hours below the 2010 Building Regulation model were the updated appliances/occupancy trends, the cross ventilation strategy, north orientation and most prominently, the nigh time ventilation. A combined model of these interventions were then able to remove all degree hours beyond the threshold, even in a heat wave simulation; for both occupancy types.
In the UK, there is a growing debate over the importance of decreasing winter fuel allowance through energy efficient upgrades to the building fabric against their effect on summer overheating. The focus of this report is to present a set of design and occupant recommendations on what occupants can do to passively reduce overheating in their 1965-1980 semi-detached dwellings. This is achieved by testing changes to occupant behaviour and building aspects; through different interventions, post 2010 Building Regulations.
IES software was chosen to simulate the different scenarios of possible interventions to overheating upon a base case design of a four person family 1965-1980 semi-detached dwelling. Standard dimensions, materials, occupant/appliance gains and time profiles were chosen to justify the base case. To measure the degree of overheating internally in the dwelling, a degree hours over the CIBSE overheating threshold (CIBSE, 2006) was used. This method measures the severity of overheating and allowed the comparison of the effect of these interventions on key rooms.
The basic upgrades to the building with the improved U-values of the 2010 Building Regulation were found to decrease the total degree hours; dispelling the main theory of health risk associated with improving the air tightness of the dwelling. When changed to two elderly (vulnerable) occupants, the total degree hours decreased overall compared to the original family profile. From the multiple interventions there are many that were found to increase the total degree hour of the dwelling.
Methods such as daytime single sided ventilation and east/west orientation were the most costly interventions, although there were question on the legitimacy of the increase in degree hours caused by external insulation. On the other hand, interventions that were found to decrease the total degree hours below the 2010 Building Regulation model were the updated appliances/occupancy trends, the cross ventilation strategy, north orientation and most prominently, the nigh time ventilation.
From the comparison of all the simulations combined (Figure 1), none of the proposed simulations were individually able to remove total degree hours over the threshold. However when combining the effective interventions, the generated results showed even in heat waves it was able to remove risk of overheating altogether (Figure 2). Although in the family heat wave scenario, the 1% over the threshold maximum was noted. (CIBSE, 2006)
Overall in merging both the combined reduction techniques of this particular study with a previous study, a definitive set of recommendations were made. Taking into account both the ease of implementation and cost of the method, as well as the previously stated degree hours reducing interventions, external wall paint, shutters and curtains could be used.
In the wider relevance of the research, it can be used to judge the severity of risk that it may cause to occupant health. Furthermore, it can be used to adapt more criteria in current guidance reports for overheating, with the interventions tested on other types of dwellings.
The Gus Astley Student Award closes on 31 July, so if you have relevant coursework submit it online to have a chance to win £500 and a place at Belfast2018.
Among the most enjoyable of the huge variety of tours at the IHBC’s Manchester 2017 Annual School was the visit to Liverpool as featured in the Liverpool Echo of 16 July.
The ‘SkillBuild’ competition sees the very best in construction talent compete against each other in local heats across the country culminating in the Final at the NEC Birmingham.
11 awards to schemes and projects across England were handed out at an event at The Leadenhall Building, London attended by community groups and industry professionals.
The fifth Inquiry from the APPG for Excellence in the Built Environment looks at Brexit’s impact on future skills needs in the construction industry and built environment professions.
The BBC reports on how the Humber Bridge has been given Grade I listed status to become one of only six structures built in England since 1961 to be afforded the honour.
BDP and CH2M have been selected for vital work to protect the heritage of the Palace of Westminster from the substantial and growing risk of failure of its essential services.
The Scottish Government’s commissioned independent analysis of responses to the ‘Places, People and Planning’ consultation has been published with a position statement on proposals it plans on taking forward.
HES offers a blog on creating a series of Digital Stories to help schools learn about blackhouse history and Gaelic, with the help of pupils from Sgoil an Taobh Siar.
The Committee has launched a report that looks at measures to protect and improve the capital’s green spaces ‘Park life: ensuring green spaces remain a hit with Londoners’.
Dame Helen Ghosh has announced she will be stepping down as director general of the National Trust in March next year to become master of Balliol College at Oxford University.