Last edited 03 Aug 2022


Redefining value, The manufacturing revolution, Remanufacturing, refurbishment, repair and direct reuse in the circular economy, published by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2018, suggests that the word ‘upgrade’ refers to: ‘…the act of raising a product to a higher standard with the objective to improve performance, efficiency, and/or functionality by adding or replacing components, including electronic and/or software. For the purposes of this report, an upgrade that is performed as the primary and/or sole objective of a VRP (Value-Retention Process) is categorized as a ‘refurbishment’. Upgrades performed as one of several process steps of comprehensive refurbishment or remanufacturing are not distinguished.’

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