Adapting 1965-1980 semi-detached dwellings in the UK to reduce summer overheating and the effect of the 2010 Building Regulations
Author: Steven Howse
The aim of the report was to produce recommendations for occupants to undertake, concerning passive changes to the building design and changing occupant activity to reduce overheating in 1965- 1980 semi-detached dwellings. To do so, interventions in these two topics were tested to reduce overheating on a post 2010 Building Regulations base case.
This base case and interventions simulations were developed using IES software. To measure the level of overheating, internally, a degree hours over the CIBSE overheating threshold (CIBSE, 2006) method was used.
The basic upgrades to the building implementing the 2010 Building Regulation were found to decrease the total degree hours. When changed to two elderly (vulnerable) occupants, the total degree hours decreased overall. Other interventions that were found to decrease the total degree hours below the 2010 Building Regulation model were the updated appliances/occupancy trends, the cross ventilation strategy, north orientation and most prominently, the nigh time ventilation. A combined model of these interventions were then able to remove all degree hours beyond the threshold, even in a heat wave simulation; for both occupancy types.
In the UK, there is a growing debate over the importance of decreasing winter fuel allowance through energy efficient upgrades to the building fabric against their effect on summer overheating. The focus of this report is to present a set of design and occupant recommendations on what occupants can do to passively reduce overheating in their 1965-1980 semi-detached dwellings. This is achieved by testing changes to occupant behaviour and building aspects; through different interventions, post 2010 Building Regulations.
IES software was chosen to simulate the different scenarios of possible interventions to overheating upon a base case design of a four person family 1965-1980 semi-detached dwelling. Standard dimensions, materials, occupant/appliance gains and time profiles were chosen to justify the base case. To measure the degree of overheating internally in the dwelling, a degree hours over the CIBSE overheating threshold (CIBSE, 2006) was used. This method measures the severity of overheating and allowed the comparison of the effect of these interventions on key rooms.
The basic upgrades to the building with the improved U-values of the 2010 Building Regulation were found to decrease the total degree hours; dispelling the main theory of health risk associated with improving the air tightness of the dwelling. When changed to two elderly (vulnerable) occupants, the total degree hours decreased overall compared to the original family profile. From the multiple interventions there are many that were found to increase the total degree hour of the dwelling.
Methods such as daytime single sided ventilation and east/west orientation were the most costly interventions, although there were question on the legitimacy of the increase in degree hours caused by external insulation. On the other hand, interventions that were found to decrease the total degree hours below the 2010 Building Regulation model were the updated appliances/occupancy trends, the cross ventilation strategy, north orientation and most prominently, the nigh time ventilation.
From the comparison of all the simulations combined (Figure 1), none of the proposed simulations were individually able to remove total degree hours over the threshold. However when combining the effective interventions, the generated results showed even in heat waves it was able to remove risk of overheating altogether (Figure 2). Although in the family heat wave scenario, the 1% over the threshold maximum was noted. (CIBSE, 2006)
Overall in merging both the combined reduction techniques of this particular study with a previous study, a definitive set of recommendations were made. Taking into account both the ease of implementation and cost of the method, as well as the previously stated degree hours reducing interventions, external wall paint, shutters and curtains could be used.
In the wider relevance of the research, it can be used to judge the severity of risk that it may cause to occupant health. Furthermore, it can be used to adapt more criteria in current guidance reports for overheating, with the interventions tested on other types of dwellings.
Photo: Colin Higgs (http://www.portreathstudio.com) from Hilary Wyatt’s winning submission to the 2016 IHBC Student Award, on historic marine infrastructure.
The IHBC’s 2017 Gus Astley Student Award closes on 31 July, so if you have relevant coursework be sure to submit it online and on time.
Following their election at the IHBC’s AGM in Manchester, the institute’s officers summary details have been posted on the IHBC’s website.
IHBC’s Policy Chair said: ‘This judgement…. makes clear the importance of up-to-date development plans, and that the NPPF is not the over-riding consideration in every planning decision’.
Consultant for Stage 2 HLF bid for Mansfield Townscape Heritage Scheme, closing 7 August, valued at £70,000.
Humber Bridge joins top 2.5% of listed buildings on the 36th anniversary of its official opening by The Queen, as 9 new listings are added during Hull City of Culture 2017.
In 2017, Scotland will become the first part of the UK to introduce the ‘socio-economic duty’ and a consultation paper is a key way to get the implementation right.
The online survey’s objective is to review HE’s online advice and guidance to find out if the right information is being provided to the right people in the most effective way.
From 22 - 23 July 2017 free architecturally-inspired activities and workshops will be held, led by architects, artists and designers for kids and their families to explore the city.
Transport Secretary Chris Grayling confirms Britain’s high-speed rail lines to the north-west, East Midlands and Yorkshire will give the North of England a huge economic boost.
Two reports detail the amount of financial support the EU has provided to heritage in England and Scotland between 2007-2016, together identifying more than £486 million.
To mark the 50th anniversary of the Civic Amenities Act 1967 Civic Voice has awarded 3 Special Awards to projects from across England for enhancing a conservation area.