Last edited 25 Dec 2020

Parthenon of Books


In July 2017, the Argentine artist Marta Minujin created a full-scale replica of the Parthenon for the Documenta 14 art festival in Kassel, Germany.

The installation was constructed from books which were censored by Nazi Germany, symbolising resistance to political repression. 100,000 books were sourced from round-the-world donations in collaboration with students at Kassel University.


The books were strapped to the steel frame structure with plastic sheeting, serving a dual function of protecting the books from the weather and allowing natural light to filter through the building.

Minujin chose Athens’ Parthenon as the subject for the installation because it symbolises ‘the aesthetic and political ideals of the world’s first democracy’. The site – Friedrichsplatz, Kassel – is also symbolic, being the place where 2,000 books were burned by the Nazis.

The intention is to recirculate the books once the festival is over.


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