Last edited 11 Jan 2021

Artificial cements

Durability Guaranteed - Pulhamite Rockwork - Its conservation and repair, published by Historic England in 2008, defines artificial cements as: ‘…very strong, extremely hydraulic materials made by blending limestone with other materials – shales, clays, iron oxides and sometimes sands – that contain calcium and aluminium silicates and iron. The mixture is usually burned in a kiln at high temperature (over 1300°C) and cooled, producing a clinker which is then ground to a fine powder. Older artificial cements were not fired at lower temperatures and therefore only have a strength similar to that of Roman Cement.’

See also: Natural cements.

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