Last edited 29 Dec 2021

End-of-use

Redefining value, The manufacturing revolution, Remanufacturing, refurbishment, repair and direct reuse in the circular economy, published by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2018, suggests: ‘End-of-use (EOU): Refers to the point in the product or object’s service life at which the product may not be needed by the current owner/user, or able to function or perform as required, and for which there are other options available to keep the product and/or its components within the market, via value-retention processes (VRPs). It is important to note that EOU may occur without any product issue at all: The owner may simply no longer want or need the fully-functioning product, even though it has not yet fulfilled its entire expected service life. This includes various forms of obsolescence, which refers to the process of becoming obsolete, outdated or no longer used due to defects (material obsolescence), lack of interoperability or incompatibility of software (functional obsolescence), the desire for a new version (psychological obsolescence), or because repair/maintenance to maintain performance is expensive (economic obsolescence).’

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