Last edited 29 Dec 2021


Redefining value, The manufacturing revolution, Remanufacturing, refurbishment, repair and direct reuse in the circular economy, published by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2018, suggests end-of-waste (EOW) refers to: ‘…conditions under which certain specified waste shall cease to be waste (per Directive 2008/98/EC), specifically: when it has undergone a recovery, including recycling; the substance or object is commonly used for specific purposes; a market or demand exists for such a substance or object; the substance or object fulfills the technical requirements for the specific purposes and meets the existing legislation and standard applicable to products; and the use of the substance or object will not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts. (Directive 2008/98/EC).’

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