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This is to contribute what information are not published on this site for researchers to do further research in the field of Architecture.
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Topic: Approaching for Integrated System Design
Design professionals are considering on the social and concerning of greenhouse effect on the new and existing developments. For instance, in the Europe, green design seem to be saving energy and perceived marketing advantage as well as Alan R. (1998) reasons that should consider on sustainable design due to:
- Long-term financial viability (saving money)
- Understand user’s needs, comfort and health
- Understand environmental issues
- Must be long-term flexibility in building (energy/cost) and availability of affordable office spaces and
- Must be marketing advantage through environmentally friendly design
Note: if a building with a less environmental impact can generate cost saving, marketable, sustainability in environmental and economic and so called “Win” “Win” Solution.
- Integrated Design
Integrated Designs are from two perspectives
- It is a process that delivers values by understanding the impacts from broad range of discipline to fit the built form, which efficiency in building services and complex interaction between buildings and its services installations.
- It describe a resulting solution/building or services system (physical building components) the cooling system or full electrical and mechanical systems, these may identified as cost energy saving.
The central way to success it, understanding the building forms, heating level, ventilation and natural lighting and so there are much depending on the communication between architects, engineers and the cost planner (material used)
Design Structures and Process do not lend themselves to integrated cross-disciplinary design approach. Because engineers (electrician & Mechanical) were designed services in pre-determined plans, not giving in built forms, this is the lack of team integrated and resulted in failure in cost efficiency energy saving initiatives.
The central success of it is to understand the complex interactions every professional with built forms and resulting levels of heating, lighting and ventilation.
- Design Process Issues
Not only disciplines reduced energy demand, it should do at all stages of design process (site issues, concept than to the central issues of the building thermal energy demands.
Selecting site and setting of building have significant impact on energy demands like:
- Wind direction
- Cooling and heating
- Noise and pollution
- Natural ventilation
It is an over-specification of integrated design which specified needs for systems to be under taken into the building i.e. air conditioning, it gives the detail specification for which the service is to be installed in the building.
Building is the primary mechanism for reducing the efficiency of the energy load, therefore understanding impacts on the built form on the energy demands, for instance, glazing from the daylight, cooling and heating will act up on the building.
The proactive approach of it is to develop building to protect against direct (sunlight) impact by creating solar shading thermal massing and building plan depth.
It is to modifying building from which the type of the climate and reduces the energy consumption in a particular setting (place) and time (year/month) and to provide appropriate services like artificial lighting during dark hours.
It is where integrated design are delivered and fully maintained, the energy consumption to Energy Saving Potential is depending on the control logic. So during the construction phase can impact energy usage as the design process.
Therefore, commissioning of system is important for successful operation.
It’s a way of generating the design process either innovative or uncommon, in which building much be considered with design such as the level of intervention from the users. But energy efficiency can deliver opposite, if the operation is inappropriate.
- Design Tools
Integrated Design required detail understanding of design related to the impacts which directly to the energy and greenhouse gas emission (daylight availability and thermal energy). Therefore accurate using tools and aid communication between professionals (architects, electrician and Mechanical) are adhering the solution to the risk.
The application of design tools, like software, flexibility of the building in terms of rendering, climatic control and natural lighting and so judgment by designers for appropriate material properties (computation) are to fully understand and communicate between the professionals.
3.2.1 Day-lighting Assessment
There are various techniques (packages) to diffuse the reflection of light from matte colored surfaces and provide accurate model of sky luminance in order to allow advanced glazing techniques. These are done by using Radiosity Based Tool through overing a compressive method of assessing day lighting. It provides by computation through Landscape and these techniques making easier in terms of economic alternatives.
3.2.2. Building Thermal Modelling
It is distinct from assessing design day heat loads, which can assess effects of thermal storage and dynamic process like night purge ventilation but the methods have been varied from the degrees of complexity and flexibility.
The general thermal modelling of the building is a passive control, in which the ability of assessing the sun paths can effectively described in the building through 3D descriptions with the integrated calculation of the natural ventilation.
This is done using commercial software like, Temper, Cheenath or TAS
- Plant and System Modelling
These are dependant of pre-calculation of building thermal energy, which the tool of accurate assessment of heating, cooling and ventilation systems.
Flexibility is an important issues in this, because it affects range of solutions in team design like the cooling and heating recovery is understood and demonstrated accurately in the software if its inherent capacity to model is accurate (e.g. ESPII & TAS software)
- Air Movement
It is important in both macro and microclimates of a building, for instance, natural ventilation can subjected to wind effects but providing efficient spaces cant disturbed the movement of the air.
In the computation fluid dynamics (CFD) is a tool for analysing, replacing or supplement the model by undertaking the wind tunnel. Also CFD predict the air velocities and temperatures that will disturbed and measure the differences of efficiency by phoenics methods (affordable solutions).
- The 3 different software used to determine the thermal modelling are:
- Thermal Modelling – used to assess the characteristics of space and energy demand
- Plant Modelling – used to assess the psychometrics, air handling and plant efficiency
- Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) – used to assess validate air disturbances and communicate two different ways of servicing place.
4.0. Architectural Systems
These are components that make up the building through the design process with particular disciplines, such as the passive heat and cooling (ventilation and air conditioning control) performances of the building and it is the responsibility of engineers (mechanician)
To clarifying, the understanding of Architects and engineers must be addressed discretely with the production of heat and cooling systems with integrated structural and facades design system.
4.1. Architectural Systems
An integrated engineering design delivers the advice from the architectural packages (designs). For instance, day lighting and shading provision is the best architectural packages and, so must be design in detail and engineers must understand to choose the appropriate devices that desired the energy efficiency and light shelve are good for interaction with embodied building and energy efficiency.
In addition, the passive design strategies including natural ventilation, thermal comfort and energy efficiency are all documented in the architectural packages (designs) for the benefits of tendering. These strategies are suitable for Australia standard.
4.2. Mechanical Systems
The introduction of integrated design has greatest impact on the building services engineer (mechanical, electrician and hydraulics) like air conditioning, ventilation in which engineers are in dynamic performance with accomplished by architectural façade system.
The engineers should work harder to integrate air paths in the building structure which required coordinating ductwork and passive mixed mode or hybrid systems and suit within the scope of a mechanical engineer.
4.2.1. Space Cooling
It’s simply an air movement within a space can impact on energy efficiency (air distribution within a space) and the characteristics of air diffusion. This will assess by an appropriate cooling system and considering air removal efficiency (height, opening and plan & duct runs), which has the effect on plant load and sustainable energy measures such as economic cycles.
Emerging integrated design technologies static cooling and heating offers significant benefits like static cooling has saving the energy demands of fans and used traditional air conditioning systems.
 4.2. Electrical
Opportunities for effectiveness in electrical services through integrated design are limited. Lighting is said to be a very significant consumer of energy and a the increasing consideration of renewable energy.
- Lighting Control
Natural lighting is acknowledged as providing a better quality of light than that provided by artificial lamps, however, energy savings are not generated unless the appropriate controls and switching are given to artificial lighting.
- Lamp Selection
Lamp selection can generate improved indoor environments, in addition to savings of energy and hence greenhouse gas emissions. Improved light quality and greatly reduced energy consumption can be provided in a lamp with a higher maintained Luminance and twice the useful life.
- Renewable Energy
Renewable energy systems include wind power, biomes and photovoltaic.
 5.0. Conclusions
It is clear that team roles must be examined if we are to be able to deliver environmental design. We will see a changing emphasis from mechanical and electrical engineers to that of a building services engineer. The ability of engineers to work in partnership with other design professionals and provide supporting analysis of environmental impacts will dictate the financial and environmental success of future projects.
Being highly aware of commercial impacts and demonstrating financial benefits, is essential in making environmental design accepted practice and not simply restricted to standard projects.
- Rodger. A, 1995(PP,1) : Environment design guide: “Environmental design and architecture”:
- A Design Approach to Integrated Intelligent Systems in a Manufacturing Environment. University of Trondheim, Norwegian Institute of Technology - NTH, Department of Production and Quality Engineering, 1995.
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