Redefining value, The manufacturing revolution, Remanufacturing, refurbishment, repair and direct reuse in the circular economy, published by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2018, suggests end-of-life (EOL): Refers to the point in the product or object’s service life at which the product or object is no longer able to function or perform as required, and for which there are no other options for the product but to be recycled or disposed into the environment.’
PAS 2080:2023 Carbon management in buildings and infrastructure, second edition, published by The British Standards Institution in March 2023, defines end of life as the: ‘…stage which begins when the asset has reached the end of its design life and is ready for refurbishment, retrofit, disposal, dismantling, etc., and ends when the asset is recycled, reused, recovered or returned to nature (combustion, deterioration) NOTE The process for setting study boundaries and assessing end-of-life emissions follows an appropriate standard or methodology, as described in Clause 7.’
- Challenging the current approach to end of life of buildings using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach.
- Does timber actually come out on top when considering end-of-life?
- End of life carbon.
- End of life care.
- End of life potential.
- End-of-life recovery rate improvement.
- End of use.
- Structures at the end of their design life.
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 About CIRCuIT
The Circular Economy wiki is supported by the Circular Construction in Regenerative Cities (CIRCuIT) project, which is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. CIRCuIT is a collaborative project involving 31 ambitious partners across the entire built environment chain in Copenhagen, Hamburg, Helsinki Region and Greater London. Through a series of demonstrations, case studies, events and dissemination activities, the project will showcase how circular construction practices can be scaled and replicated across Europe to enable sustainable building in cities and the transition to a circular economy on a wider scale.