Air will generally include moisture in the form of water vapour. Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapour in a volume of air divided by the mass of dry air.
Relative humidity (RH) is a measure of the water vapour density of air compared to the water vapour density for saturated air at the same temperature and pressure (that is, the maximum amount of moisture that air can “hold” at that temperature and pressure). It is expressed as a percentage.
RH = (actual water vapour density / saturation water vapour density) x 100
When air cools, it is less able to “hold” moisture, that is, the saturation water vapour density falls, and so relative humidity rises. When the relative humidity reaches 100%, the air will be saturated. This is described as the dew point. If the air continues to cool, moisture will begin to condense.
Humidity influences thermal comfort. The higher the relative humidity, the less heat a person is able to lose heat through the evaporation of moisture on the skin, and so the hotter they will feel. Conversely, air that is too dry can cause problems such as dry eyes, nose, ears and throat. Typically, a relative humidity of 40 to 60% is appropriate in many buildings.
Humidity also affects the performance of buildings, causing condensation, mould growth, mildew, staining, slip hazards, damage to equipment and the corrosion and decay of the building fabric as well as poor performance of insulation. Condensation can occur on surfaces, or can be interstitial condensation, occurring between the layers of the building envelope, typically as a result of air diffusing from the warm interior of the building to the cool exterior and reaching its dew point within the building fabric.
Humidity can be measured using a hygrometer. Typically these are electronic moisture detectors, or devices such as a sling psychrometer which measures dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature, allowing relative humidity to be calculated or read from charts.
Humidity can be controlled by limiting sources of moisture (including reverse condensation, where moisture evaporates from damp materials), increasing temperatures, humidification or dehumidification, and by ventilation. Condensation can be further avoided by increasing surface temperatures (such as by the inclusion of insulation or by improving glazing). In particular it is necessary to avoid cold bridges, situations in a building where there is a direct connection between the inside and outside through one or more elements that are more thermally conductive than the rest of the building envelope, resulting in lower localised temperatures.
Humidity and condensation in buildings is regulated by Approved Document C (Site preparation and resistance to contaminates and moisture) and Approved Document F (Ventilation) and further guidance is available in BS 5250 Code of practice for the control of condensation in buildings.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Air conditioning.
- Approved documents.
- Cold bridge.
- Dew point.
- Dry-bulb temperature.
- Interstitial condensation.
- Mould growth.
- Preventing overheating.
- Psychometric chart.
- Rising damp.
- Sling psychrometer.
- Thermal comfort.
- Thermal indices.
- Wet-bulb temperature.
 External references
Featured articles and news
In the week of the momentous Heathrow decision, we look back at the development and design of T5.
BSRIA’s flagship event will address performance and wellbeing beyond compliance.
Young Architects and Developers Alliance launched to build the relationship between the two disciplines.
BS 8536-2:2016 Design and construction: Code of practice for asset management (Linear and geographical infrastructure).
Paying for off-site goods or materials can be useful, but it puts the client at risk.
People power can be transformative if properly informed and inspired.
ZHA win competition to build an Urban Heritage Administration Centre in Saudi Arabia.
Leaps, not steps, are needed to avoid a ticking time bomb, say BRE in response to Farmer Review.
A multi-purpose hall in France covered in a translucent orange membrane.
Winning designs revealed for a rock formation-influenced residential complex in Rennes.
An article explaining the techniques, regulations and environmental impacts of carbon capture and storage.
Watch one of the first documentaries by the acclaimed Adam Curtis, examining the substandard system building of the 1960s.