Archaeologists are specialists who study and work in the field of past human activity. This is done primarily through the recovery and analysis of material and environmental features, such as artifacts, architecture and cultural landscapes. The main aim of archaeologists is to facilitate long-term conservation and enhance understanding of historic environments.
Archaeological consultants often work for engineering companies, providing services such as environmental impact assessments, impact mitigation and design services. Construction developers may seek their advice on how to proceed with issues relating to the archaeological and heritage aspects of a project. Local authorities, national agencies or the private sector may engage them for specialist research purposes.
The practice of archaeology is not regulated by Government. The Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA), is the leading professional body representing archaeologists working in the UK and overseas, and it regulates the members and promotes professional standards.
Becoming an archaeologist usually requires a university degree, and it is increasingly common to study for a post-graduate degree. There are a wide range of postgraduate degrees in archaeology; some offer courses of study (taught courses), while others are based largely on independent research.
Unlike other professions such as surveying or architecture, there are no formal steps to chartered status for archaeologists. However, the CIfA has announced its intention to begin consulting its members and the sector on the desirability of conferring chartered status on suitabl;y qualified members.
 The role of the archaeologist
The typical role of an archaeologist may include:
- Archaeological surveys.
- Understanding geographical – both physical and human – considerations.
- Report writing and publication of findings.
- Provision of management considerations to relevant authorities.
- Public consultation and community liaison.
- Facilitating the preservation of heritage sites.
- Working with a broad range of other specialists from other subject areas, such as; history, geography, biology, chemistry, sociology, and so on.
- Research in order to understand historical contexts, accurately assess sites of heritage significance, and advise developers and other stakeholders.
 Planning and development
Legislation and policy relating to archaeology and the built environment is constantly evolving. Archaeological consultants are often sought by clients to understand the legal context for the archaeological work. UK legislation, planning policy, European legislation and guidance from government and non-governmental organisations, provide the framework for the historic environment.
Protection of archaeological remains, including historic buildings, has been a part of the British planning systems since the early 1990s and is now addressed by Section 12 of the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). All designers of refurbishment or extension projects affecting 'historic' buildings, and all designers of new buildings within areas that the local planning authority (LPA) believes to be archaeologically sensitive, should be aware of the requirements of the NPPF and the preceding planning guidance statutory instruments it is based on - in particular; PPG16 (1990), PPG14 (1994) and PPS5 (2010).
The NPPF makes clear that '...there will be archaeological interest in a heritage asset if it holds, or potentially may hold, evidence of past human activity worthy of expert investigation at some point. Heritage assets with archaeological interest are the primary source of evidence about the substance and evolution of places, and of the people and cultures that made them.'
Archaeologists must be familiar with the spatial planning processes and the steps necessary to manage change in the historic environment. These steps may include:
- Communication with planning authorities and agencies.
- Desk-based resource assessment.
- Field investigations.
- Reporting to the local authority on the results of investigations.
- Seeking planning permission.
- In the case of significant remains, recording or conserving them in advance of, or during, development.
- Analysis and interpretation of the results, with publication of findings.
- Community or public engagement.
- Archiving documentation, research material, and so on.
Under the Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2015, archaeology is no longer considered to be ‘construction work’, despite much of the pre-construction work being of a similar nature. However, archaeological works are covered by legislation such as The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and the PRovision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998, and so on.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Archaeological officer
- Conservation area
- Designated areas
- English Heritage
- Historic England
- Listed buildings
- National Planning Policy Framework
- Planning permission
- Scheduled monuments
- Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
Featured articles and news
The IHBC helps UK Civic Trusts to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the introduction of Conservation Areas, with a fund allocation of up to £2500, including a prize of a place at the IHBC’s Annual School on offer for the most effective project.
The IHBC’s commercial conservation services listing, HESPR – the Historic Environment Service Providers Recognition scheme – offers weekly HESPR Bulletins listing tender opportunities. The Director’s top pick for IHBC members this week features Redbridge Borough Council’s search for a ‘consultant to provide additional guidance to support the Council’s evidence base in relation to tall buildings throughout the Borough’, with a contract valued at £60,000.
This year the AGM will be held in Lisburn on 9th November, followed by the joint conference ‘Heritage for the Next Generation, Who Pays?’, organised by the Branch with Lagan Navigation Trust and Heritage Trust Network. Key ministerial and media speakers include Paul Givan MLA, John Sergeant and Joe Mahon.
The IHBC has warmly welcomed Historic Environment Scotland's (HES) new website, a ‘Place to Explore your Built Heritage'.
Bristol may have lost one of its oldest and most historically important churches as St Michael on the Mount Without adds itself to the long line of listed buildings assailed by fire.
A resident has been fined £1,600 after Harlow Council took him to court for failing to demolish an outbuilding he has built in his garden, as Councillor Danny Purton, Portfolio Holder for Environment there, said: ‘… People living in a conservation area take pride in maintaining its special character and this development does more harm than good and does nothing to either preserve or enhance the appearance of the area. There are no public benefits to outweigh the harm this causes.’
On 12 October 2016, the AQA exam board announced that it would not be continuing work to develop new AS and A-levels in Archaeology, Classical Civilisation, History of Art and Statistics, and petitions objecting to these plans have been generating lots of signatures.
Firefighters worked through the night of 13 October to battle a huge blaze at a former north-east hospital, the derelict Glen O’Dee hospital, Banchory as now news reports have emerged that the Category A listed building, which once featured on the BBC ‘Restoration’ programme, has been deliberately destroyed by fire.
An appeal launched relating to housing near the historic battlefield of Edgehill, Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire has been dismissed, with the inspector concluding that the appeal was not in accordance with the development plan and that harm to the character of the surroundings would be likely to occur.
The remembrance poppy sculpture ‘weeping window’ which was initially at the Tower of London now graces another monument, this time in Wales, at Caernarfon Castle.