Office space planning
To help develop this article, click 'Edit this article' above.
When moving to a new facility, or redesigning an existing office, it is important to engage with occupants through user group discussions or interviews to ensure proposals satisfy their needs and desires as well as business requirements. This can be facilitated by the use of mood boards, computer-generated images, mock-ups and samples that can help occupants visualise and compare different options.
Planning office spaces, involves a number of complex and challenging issues, including:
- Location and access to amenities.
- Corporate culture and brand.
- Building constraints.
- Spatial considerations.
- Working practices.
- Proximity relationships.
- ICT requirements.
- Furniture, fittings and equipment requirements.
- Future expansion.
- Capital and operational costs.
- Energy targets and sustainability requirements.
- Efficiency of the working environment.
- Environmental requirements, such as noise, lighting, ventilation, temperature and so on.
- Environmental controls.
- Views and access to outside space.
- Security and privacy.
When considering the office space needed, analysis should be carried out of the types of spaces required, the number of different areas i.e. open office spaces, enclosed cubicles, private meeting facilities, conference areas etc, the number of employees (current and anticipated), recreational requirements, welfare facilities and so on.
The legislation that guides the planning of office space is the Workplace, (Health Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 and Regulation 10 states the following with regards to room dimensions and space requirements:
'Every room where persons work shall have sufficient floor area, height and unoccupied space for purposes of health, safety and welfare.'
The associated Approved Code of Practice and Guidance states:
'Workrooms should have enough free space to allow people to get to and from workstations and to move within the room, with ease. The number of people who may work in any particular room at any one time will depend not only on the size of the room, but on the space taken up by furniture, fittings, equipment, and on the layout of the room. Workrooms, except those where people only work for short periods, should be of sufficient height (from floor to ceiling) over most of the room to enable safe access to workstations. In older buildings with obstructions such as low beams the obstruction should be clearly marked.'
Numerically, the guidance states that the total volume of a room (when empty), divided by the normal number of people who work in the room, should be at least 11 cubic metres.
For example, with a ceiling height of 2.4m, a floor area of 4.6m2 (eg 2.0 x 2.3m) will be needed to provide the 11 cubic metres. With a higher ceiling height of 3.0m, a minimum floor area of 3.7m2 (eg 2.0 x 1.85m) will be needed.
However, this minimum figure may not be sufficient, if for example a large amount of the room is occupied by furniture, or depending on the contents and layout of the room and the type of work being undertaken.
The 11 cubic metres minimum standard is not applicable to: retail sales kiosks, attendants' shelters, machine control cabs or similar small structures, where space is necessarily limited; or rooms being used for lectures, meetings and similar purposes.
The 2013 Occupier Density study published by the British Council for Offices (BCO) found '…a mean density of one workplace per 10.9 m2 net internal area (NIA). Of the sample properties 38% fall within the range 8–10 m2, while 58% fall within the wider range of 8–12 m2….. the lowest and highest densities are in the Corporate (13.1 m2) and Financial & Insurance (9.7 m2) sectors'
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- Criteria for the choice of a structural system to be included in office specification.
- Lifts for office buildings.
- Mood board.
- Office definition.
- Post Occupancy Evaluation: operational performance of a refurbished office building.
- Site office.
- Structural systems for offices.
- Workplace definition.
 External references
Featured articles and news
Sadiq Khan publishes a new development strategy for the capital.
In the week of the momentous Heathrow decision, we look back at the development and design of T5.
BSRIA’s flagship event will address performance and wellbeing beyond compliance.
Young Architects and Developers Alliance launched to build the relationship between the two disciplines.
BS 8536-2:2016 Design and construction: Code of practice for asset management (Linear and geographical infrastructure).
Paying for off-site goods or materials can be useful, but it puts the client at risk.
People power can be transformative if properly informed and inspired.
ZHA win competition to build an Urban Heritage Administration Centre in Saudi Arabia.
Leaps, not steps, are needed to avoid a ticking time bomb, say BRE in response to Farmer Review.
A multi-purpose hall in France covered in a translucent orange membrane.
Winning designs revealed for a rock formation-influenced residential complex in Rennes.
An article explaining the techniques, regulations and environmental impacts of carbon capture and storage.
Watch one of the first documentaries by the acclaimed Adam Curtis, examining the substandard system building of the 1960s.