Geotechnical engineering is a practice that relates to the engineering behaviour of the earth and its materials. As a branch of civil engineering it is of great importance to construction activities taking place on the surface or within the ground, as well as to mining, coastal, drilling and other disciplines.
Geotechnical engineers are responsible for evaluating subsurface and soil conditions and materials, using the principles of soil and rock mechanics. They are commonly appointed as consultants on construction projects. Engineers also examine environmental issues such as flood plains and water tables. By doing so they are able to determine whether a particular site is suitable for a proposed project, and can inform the engineering design process with regard to how ground conditions can be made safe and effective for construction.
From geotechnical surveys, engineers will be able to evaluate the stability of the ground, including any slopes and soil deposits, assess any risks and/or contamination, and help to determine the types of foundations and earthworks that will be required. The potential for hazards such as landslides, earthquakes and other seismic activity can also be assessed.
Geotechnical engineering is also important in coastal and ocean engineering, in relation to building wharves, jetties, marinas and coastal defences, as well as foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil rig platforms. Engineers may also work on embankments, tunnels, channels, reservoirs, irrigation systems and so on.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
Featured articles and news
Four practical tips to bring sustainability into your building design.
Have a look at these designs for a new cross-laminated timber tower in Toronto.
Geniebelt examine the urgent need for change in construction.
Read our introductory article to the contractor's design portion.
Four ways in which smart cities could make our lives better.
Mayor Sadiq Khan announces new Greener City Fund in drive to make London the first 'National Park City'.
BSRIA announce UKAS accreditation for sound absorption testing.
The full terms of reference are published for the Grenfell Tower Inquiry.
Read our introductory article into the role and practice of the architect.
Despite dividing opinion since its 1955 completion, Stalin's gift to Poland, the PKiN, is still Warsaw's most recognisible landmark.
Graduate Engineer Brittany Harris asks, what makes a great place to work?
Mayor Sadiq Khan publishes new guidance aimed at fast-tracking affordable housing projects through planning.