- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 17 May 2018
A garden is an enclosed area of, typically external, land that is cultivated with natural and ornamental features.
- Winter garden: A garden maintained throughout winter.
- Landscape garden: A large-scale landscape.
- Zen garden: A small-scale idealised landscape with plants usually kept to a minimum.
- French formal garden: Based on symmetry and the idea of imposing order on nature.
- Tropical garden: Tropical conditions are created to enable the cultivation of tropical plants.
- Roof garden: A garden located on the roof of a building.
- Kitchen garden: and ornamental vegetable garden.
- English garden: A style of landscape garden that idealises nature.
While residential gardens are often maintained by the property owner, professional gardeners, horticulturists and landscape architects are often involved in the design of larger-scale or specialist gardens.
Garden design involves drawing up plans for laying out and planting different landscapes, and this will largely be determined by the purpose for which the garden is intended. Some gardens are purely for aesthetic or ornamental purposes, while others can be more functional – growing food and other crops, and so on.
Other considerations for the planting of gardens include:
- The location, climate and exposure.
- The soil type.
- Means of access.
- The potential for pests to damage the garden.
- The horticultural requirements.
- The appearance of the plants season-by-season.
- The typical lifespan of the plants.
- The growth habits of the plants – their size, rate of growth, and so on.
- The maintenance needs of the garden.
- The elements of hard landscape and other features that will be included.
- How the garden will be used.
- How the garden will connect and/or interact with the building or other structures.
- Privacy and security.
- Budget and time constraints.
The natural elements included in a garden typically comprise:
- Flora (trees, shrubs, lawns, etc.).
- Fauna (anthropods, birds, etc.).
- Soil, compost, mulch, etc.
- Water (streams, ponds, etc.).
Some of the hard landscape (or hardscape) elements that can be part of a garden include:
- Fencing and walls.
- Drainage systems.
- Irrigation systems (e.g. sprinklers).
- Structures (e.g. sheds, gazebos, pergolas, follies, greenhouses).
- Water features (e.g. fountains, ponds, creeks, waterfalls).
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- External works.
- Garden cities.
- Green roof.
- Landscape architect.
- Landscape design.
- Patio stone.
- Rain garden.
- Rainwater harvesting.
- Seeding and turfing.
- Splash fountain.
- The benefits of urban trees.
- The landscapes of Cambridge.
- The secret life of the Georgian garden.
- Types of garden fountain.
Featured articles and news
The Isle of Man’s naturally-occurring materials and distinctive building techniques.
BRE partner with Global GreenTag to develop an Ethical Labour Sourcing Standard for Australia.
The Chartered Quality Institute explain the pathway to success for organisations implementing management systems.
An introductory article looking at where a duty of care can arise in the construction industry.
House of Lords committee encourages the use of off-site manufacturing in new report.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can go some way to show the impact of new buildings on their surroundings.
The shortlist for the 2018 prize for the UK's best new building is revealed.
Amendment to Bill aims to provide councils with greater powers to increase tax premiums on empty homes.
As the latest summer blockbuster 'Skyscraper' is released, we look at some of the best uses of buildings in film.
Read our introductory article on how to layout a building.