Radiation is a heat transfer mechanism, along with conduction, convection and phase change. All bodies which are hotter than 0°K emit thermal radiation. They also absorb thermal radiation emitted by their surroundings. The difference in the total amount of radiation emitted and absorbed by a body at any given moment may result in a net heat transfer which will produce a change in the temperature of that body.
Thermal radiation includes all those wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum which will heat a body when absorbed by it, ranging from about 100nm to 100,000nm. In general, the higher the temperature of a body, the lower the average wavelength of the radiation it emits.
The range of terrestrial temperatures experienced within the built environment is relatively small, and relative to the temperature of the sun this range is ‘cold’ and so radiating at a ‘long’ wavelength compared to the sun. This anomaly allows us to categorise thermal radiation as short-wave solar radiation and terrestrial or long wave infra-red radiation.
Solar radiation may be considered to include the ultra violet, visible and near or short wave infra-red wavebands. Around 97% of the solar radiation incident upon the earth's surface is within the range 300 to 2,300nm. Its spectral profile is roughly analogous to that of a black body at 5762°K, and as terrestrial temperatures are unlikely to reach anything like this temperature, solar radiation reaching the earth may be treated as a pure thermal gain.
 Long wave infrared radiation
Most 'terrestrial' radiation occurs within the far or long wave infra-red wavebands. The wavelength of terrestrial radiation varies with temperature, however at room temperature approximately 97% of the radiation emanating from a perfect emitter will be within the range 3,000nm to 50,000nm.
This difference produces effects such as the greenhouse effect. The atmosphere is relatively transparent to solar radiation, this means it allows sunlight to enter the atmosphere and heat the Earth’s surface. These surfaces then re-radiate that heat as long-wave infra-red radiation, which greenhouse gases tend to absorb rather than transmit. The result is that the long-wave infra-red radiation is ‘trapped’ and heat accumulates in the atmosphere causing a warming process. See greenhouse gases for more information.
See greenhouse effect for more information.
 Material properties
The way in which thermal radiation affects different materials is determined by their transmittance, reflectance and absorptance. These properties change for different wavelengths of radiation and for different angles of incidence.
See thermal optical properties for more information.
See emissivity for more information.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
Featured articles and news
Leaps, not steps, are needed to avoid a ticking time bomb, say BRE in response to Farmer Review.
A multi-purpose hall in France covered in a translucent orange membrane.
Winning designs revealed for a rock formation-influenced residential complex in Rennes.
An article explaining the techniques, regulations and environmental impacts of carbon capture and storage.
Watch one of the first documentaries by the acclaimed Adam Curtis, examining the substandard system building of the 1960s.
Take a look at the tech start-up that could transform construction design and communication.
This house in Barcelona uses an innovative new facade tiling system to blend into the landscape.
The origins, evolution and future of Level 3 BIM.
For new and returning Urban Design students, check out our article list divided up into the modules you'll be studying.
Report states that health of urban dwellers could be significantly improved by rethinking transport design.
The Kremlin, the centre of Russian power, includes some of the country's finest architecture.